Python os.getuid() Method

Python os.getuid() method is used to get the current process’s real user ID. This method is typically used in Unix-like operating systems, as user IDs are a concept native to these systems. The real user ID returned is a numeric value, typically corresponding to a user in the system’s user database. Syntax os.getuid() Parameters This … Read more

Python os.getppid() Method

The os.getppid() method in Python, part of the os module, is used to get the current process’s parent process ID (PPID). The parent process is the process that created the current process, typically through a fork or similar process creation mechanism. This method is helpful in scenarios involving process hierarchies or process management. Syntax os.getppid() … Read more

Python os.getpid() Method

Python os.getpid() method, a part of the os module, is used to get the process ID of the current process. A process ID (PID) is a unique identifier assigned by the operating system to each running process. The PID is used to identify processes within the operating system. Each process running in the system is … Read more

Python os.urandom() Method

The os.urandom() method in Python is used to generate a string of random bytes. These random bytes are suitable for cryptographic purposes, such as generating tokens, passwords, or cryptographic keys. This method uses sources provided by the operating system to generate random numbers, which are typically very strong. Syntax os.urandom(size) Parameters Name Description size It … Read more

Python os.unsetenv() Method

Python os.unsetenv() method is used to delete an environment variable.  The method is helpful when you need to modify the environment variables for your Python process or subprocesses spawned by it. The changes made by this method are local to the process and its children, not the entire system environment. To remove an environment variable … Read more

Python os.get_terminal_size() Method

The os.get_terminal_size() method is used to query the size of the terminal window in which the Python interpreter is running and returns the dimensions of the terminal in terms of columns and lines. This method helps create text-based user interfaces or formatting output that depends on the size of the terminal. Syntax os.get_terminal_size(fd=sys.stdout.fileno()) Parameters Name … Read more

Python os.isatty() Method

Python os.isatty() method is used to check if a file descriptor refers to a terminal device (i.e. if it’s associated with a terminal or console). This method operates on a file descriptor, a low-level handle typically obtained through system-level I/O calls. It is often used in scripts and applications to check if the output is … Read more

Python os.truncate() Method

The os.truncate() method in Python is used to truncate a file to a specified length. This method allows you to shorten or extend the size of a file. If the file is extended, the extended part is filled with null bytes (\0). Unlike os.ftruncate() method, which works with file descriptors, os.truncate() operates directly on the … Read more

Python os.ftruncate() Method

The os.ftruncate() method in Python is used to truncate a file to a specified length. This method allows you to shorten or extend the file size to the specified length. If the file is extended, the new area will be filled with null bytes. This method allows for increasing or decreasing the size of the … Read more

Python os.pipe() Method

The os.pipe() method in Python is used to create a pipe in the operating system. A pipe is an IPC (Inter-Process Communication) method that allows data to be passed from one process to another in a unidirectional flow. This method is commonly used for IPC and is available on Unix and Windows. This method is … Read more

Python os.lseek() Method

The os.seek () method in Python is used to set the current position of the file descriptor to the defined position (beginning of the file, current position, or end position). This method is beneficial for manipulating files at a low level, allowing you to read from or write to specific positions in a file. This … Read more

Python os.dup2() Method

Python os.dup2() method, part of the os module, is used to duplicate a file descriptor, and the duplicate is given a specific file descriptor number. Unlike os.dup() function, it allows you to specify the new file descriptor number you want to create. If the target file descriptor number is already in use, it is silently … Read more

Python os.dup() Method

The os.dup() method in Python, part of the os module, is used to duplicate an existing file descriptor. A file descriptor is a low-level integer handle that refers to an open file, pipe, or other I/O resource. This method creates a new file descriptor that points to the same resource as the original. The new … Read more

Python os.close() Method

The os.close() method in Python is used to close a file descriptor, effectively releasing any associated system resources. A file descriptor is a non-negative integer. When a program opens a file or creates a new I/O resource (like a socket), the operating system returns a file descriptor that can be used to reference this file … Read more

Python os.fdopen() Method

The os.fdopen() method in Python opens the file descriptor fd and returns an open file object connected to the file descriptor. A file descriptor is a low-level integer handle assigned by the OS to an open file, pipe, or other input/output resource. Syntax os.fdopen(fd, mode=’r’, buffering=-1, encoding=None, errors=None, newline=None, closefd=True) Parameters Name Description fd (int) … Read more

Python os.path.getmtime() Method

Python os.path.getmtime() method is used to retrieve the last modification time of a file or directory. This method is helpful for file system operations where you need information about when a file was last modified. It can be helpful for tasks like syncing files, monitoring file changes, or in applications where file modification times are … Read more

Python os.path.getctime() Method

The os.path.getctime() method is used to retrieve the creation time of a file or directory. The time is expressed in seconds since the epoch (January 1, 1970, 00:00:00 UTC). Syntax os.path.getctime(path) Parameters Name Description path (string) It is a path of the file or directory. Return value It returns the creation time of the file … Read more

Python os.path.getatime() Method

Python os.path.getatime() method is used to get the last access time of a file or directory.  Syntax os.path.getatime(path) Parameters Name Description path (string) The path of the file or directory. Return value It returns the time of the file’s last access or directory specified by path. The time is expressed in seconds since the epoch, … Read more

Python os.path.splitdrive() Method

Python os.path.splitdrive() method is used to split the drive specifier from a pathname. This method is beneficial in Windows OS, where pathnames start with a drive specifier, like “C:\” or “D:\”. This method does not validate if the drive exists or is correct; it only parses the string based on the standard path format. This … Read more

Python os.path.samestat() Method

Python os.path.samestat() method is used to check if two stat tuples refer to the same file or directory. The stat tuples contain detailed information about a file or directory, such as size, modification time, and inode number. This method compares these details to determine if two tuples refer to the same file. It returns True … Read more

Python os.path.sameopenfile() Method

Python os.path.sameopenfile() method is used to check if two file descriptors refer to the same file. In Unix-like systems, a file descriptor is an integer uniquely identifying an open file for the process. The operating system uses them to keep track of open files. The standard file descriptors are 0 (standard input), 1 (standard output), … Read more

Python os.path.samefile() Method

Python os.path.samefile() method is used to check if two pathnames refer to the same file or directory. This method helps check if two paths, which may appear different as strings, point to the same file or directory. It resolves any symbolic links in the paths, comparing the actual files they point to. The os.path.samefile() method … Read more

Python os.path.normpath() Method

Python os.path.normpath() method is used to normalize a pathname by collapsing redundant separators and up-level references so that A//B, A/B/, A/./B, and A/foo/../B all become A/B. It does not change the actual filesystem representation of the path, but it cleans up the path string based on typical filesystem path semantics. This method converts forward slashes … Read more

Python os.path.normcase() Method

Python os.path.normcase() method is used to normalize the case of a pathname. This method can be beneficial for ensuring consistent path comparisons. Syntax os.path.normcase(path) Parameters Name Description path (string) It is a path you want to normalize. Return value It returns a new string representing the normalized pathname. Example 1: Normalizing Path on Unix/Linux On … Read more

Python os.path.ismount() Method

Python os.path.ismount() method is used to check if a given path is a mount point. A mount point is a location in the filesystem where additional filesystems are mounted. On Unix and Linux, this is typically the root of a filesystem or a location where a new filesystem has been mounted. On Windows, drive letters … Read more

Python os.path.islink() Method

Python os.path.islink() method is used to check if a specified path is a symbolic link, often called a symlink. In most operating systems, a symbolic link is a particular type of file that contains a reference to another file or directory. Syntax os.path.islink(path) Parameters Name Description path (string) It is the path that you want … Read more

Python os.path.isabs() Method

Python os.path.isabs() method is used to check whether a given path is an absolute path. An absolute path is a path that specifies a location on the filesystem independently of the current directory. The concept of absolute paths is different in Unix-like systems and Windows. For example, in Unix/Linux, an absolute path starts with / … Read more

Python os.path.expandvars() Method

Python os.path.expandvars() method is used to expand environment variables embedded within a path string. It takes a string containing environment variables in the format $name or ${name} and replaces them with their corresponding values as defined in the environment. If an environment variable in the path is not set or malformed, it is left unchanged … Read more

Python os.path.expanduser() Method

Python os.path.expanduser() method is used to expand the ~ and ~user constructs in a file path to the corresponding user’s home directory. Syntax os.path.expanduser(path) Parameters Name Description path (string, required) It is the path you want to expand. Return value It returns a new path with the expanded ~ or ~user component. Important points If … Read more

Python os.path.lexists() Method

Python os.path.lexists() method is used to check whether a path of symbolic links exists. Unlike os.path.exists(), os.path.lexists() will return True even if the path is a symbolic link that points to a non-existent file. Syntax os.path.lexists(path) Parameters Name Description path (string, required) It is a symbolic file path you want to check Return value It … Read more

Python os.access() Method

The os.access() method in Python uses the real uid/gid to check access to the path. It checks if the invoking user has specific access rights to a given path (file or directory). This method is particularly notable in setuid/setgid (suid/sgid) environments. This method, by using the real UID/GID, helps in determining what the original invoking … Read more

Python os.utime() Method

Python os.utime() method is used to update the access and modification times of a specific file or directory. It’s a way to change the timestamps on a file or directory. This method can set the last access and modification times of a file or directory manually. The actual resolution of timestamps depends on the underlying … Read more

Python os.readlink() Method

Python os.readlink() method is used to resolve a symbolic link. It returns the path to which the symbolic link points and does not follow the link but only retrieves the link target. Syntax os.readlink(path, *, dir_fd=None) Parameters Name Description path (string) The path of the symbolic link. dir_fd (optional A file descriptor refers to a … Read more

Python os.symlink() Method

Python os.symlink() method is used to create a symbolic link, often called a symlink or soft link. It creates a symbolic link pointing to a target file or directory. A symbolic link is a file that serves as a reference or pointer to another file or directory. This differs from a hard link we created … Read more

Python os.link() Method

Python os.link() method is used to create a hard link pointing to a source file. A hard link to a file is indistinguishable from the original directory entry. Any changes to a file are effective regardless of the name used to open the file. Deleting or renaming a hard link does not affect other hard links … Read more

Python os.chown() Method

Python os.chown() method is used to change the owner and group ID of the provided path or directory path to the provided numeric owner ID (UID) and group ID (GID). To change the owner of a file, you must have appropriate privileges (typically root access). This method is completely relevant in Unix or Unix-like systems. … Read more

Python os.chmod() Method

Python os.chmod() method is used to change the mode of the file or directory to the numeric mode, including permissions such as read, write, and execute. This mode value can be defined using symbolic constants found in the stat module. Syntax os.chmod(path, mode, *, dir_fd=None, follow_symlinks=True) Parameters Name Description path (string) It is a path … Read more

Python os.lstat() Method

Python os.lstat() method returns information about the symbolic link. It is similar to the os.stat() method, but unlike os.stat(), os.lstat() does not follow symbolic links. This method returns information about the file, directory, or symbolic link specified in the path. When the path is a symbolic link, it returns the information about the link itself, … Read more

Python os.stat() Method

Python os.stat() method performs stat() system calls on the specified path and retrieves various statistics about a file or a directory. This method returns an object that contains data like size, permissions, last modified date, and other details about the file or directory. Syntax os.stat(path, *, dir_fd=None, follow_symlinks=True) Parameters Name Description path (string) It is a … Read more

Python os.startfile() Method

The os.startfile() method is used in Python to open a file with an associated application, similar to double-clicking the file in Windows Explorer. This method is specific to the Windows platform. This method can open documents, play media files, or launch applications based on file types and their associated programs on the system. The os.startfile() … Read more

Python os.scandir() Method

Python os.scandir() method is used to scan the directory and yield os.DirEntry objects include file attribute information and can perform common path operations. This method is more efficient than the os.listdir() function for large directories, as it retrieves file attributes along with the file names. Syntax os.scandir(path=’.’) Parameters Name Description path (optional) The path to … Read more

Python os.replace() Method

Python os.replace() method is used to rename or move a file or directory, potentially overwriting the destination. If the destination file or directory exists, it will be replaced silently without any confirmation prompt. This method can fail when the source and destination paths are on different filesystems. This limitation is due to how file systems … Read more

Python os.renames() Method

The os.renames() method in Python is used to rename directories or files recursively, moving them if necessary. It creates any intermediate directories needed to make the new pathname good. After moving the files or directories, it will remove empty directories along the old path. This method throws an OSError for issues like insufficient permissions. Syntax … Read more

Python os.rmdir() Method

The os.rmdir() method in Python is used to remove an empty directory specified in its argument. The directory to be removed must be empty; otherwise, it will throw an OSError. Syntax os.rmdir(path, dir_fd=None) Parameters Name Description path It is a string representing the path of the directory to be removed. dir_fd (Optional) It is a … Read more

Python os.removedirs() Method

Python os.removedirs() method is used to remove directories recursively. It removes leaf directories progressively up the path. This method attempts to successively remove each directory in the given path from the leaf (the last directory in the path) up through the tree until an ancestor directory is either non-empty or encounters an error (such as … Read more

Python List Comprehension

The list comprehension is a concise way to create lists in Python. It provides a more readable and expressive syntax for creating a list based on existing lists or iterables. They are generally more compact and faster than traditional loops and manual list building. Syntax new_list = [expression for item in iterable if condition] Arguments … Read more

Python os.remove() Method

Python os.remove() method is used to remove (delete) a single file from the file system. If the specified path is a directory, it raises the OSError. To remove directories, you would use os.rmdir() for empty directories or shutil.rmtree() for directories containing files. If the file specified does not exist, it raises a FileNotFoundError. One of … Read more

Python os.get_exec_path() Method

Python os.get_exec_path() method obtains the list of directories that will be searched for a named executable, similar to Unix’s, which command works or Windows’ PATH environment variable. Syntax os.get_exec_path(env=None) Parameters Arguments Description env (optional) It is a dictionary representing a custom environment. If omitted or None, the current system environment is used. Return value It returns … Read more

Python os.fspath() Method

Python os.fspath() method is used to get the file system representation of a path-like object. A path-like object is either a string or bytes object representing a path or an object implementing the __fspath__() method, which returns either a string or bytes object. The main purpose of this method is to simplify the handling of … Read more

Python os.fsdecode() Method

Python os.fsdecode() method is used to decode a path-like filename from a byte object into a string. It is essentially the counterpart to os.fsencode(). Syntax os.fsdecode(filename) Parameters filename: This is a bytes object (containing encoded data) or a string. Return value It returns a decoded string from a bytes object. Visual representation Example 1: Decoding … Read more