RxJS – AppDividend https://appdividend.com Latest Code Tutorials Sat, 04 Jan 2020 08:58:37 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://appdividend.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/cropped-ApDivi-32x32.png RxJS – AppDividend https://appdividend.com 32 32 Angular NgRx Store Example | Angular 8 NgRx Tutorial https://appdividend.com/2018/01/31/angular-ngrx-store-tutorial-example-scratch/ https://appdividend.com/2018/01/31/angular-ngrx-store-tutorial-example-scratch/#comments Wed, 31 Jan 2018 12:34:30 +0000 http://localhost/appdividend/?p=1599 Angular NgRx Store Tutorial

Angular NgRx Store is a client-side data management pattern used in large applications. The Ngrx/Store implements the Redux pattern using RxJS observables of Angular. The ngrx/store builds on the concepts made famous by Redux and supercharges it with the backing of RxJS.  Angular NgRx Store Example In this blog post, you will learn what is […]

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Angular NgRx Store Tutorial

Angular NgRx Store is a client-side data management pattern used in large applications. The Ngrx/Store implements the Redux pattern using RxJS observables of Angular. The ngrx/store builds on the concepts made famous by Redux and supercharges it with the backing of RxJS. 

Angular NgRx Store Example

In this blog post, you will learn what is Redux pattern, where the pattern can prove to be useful, and how the design can be used to build better Angular applications. Angular Ngrx is a group of Angular libraries for reactive extensions.

To understand the NgRX concept, you must make a quick dive into the core Redux concepts and Reactive Programming concepts.

Redux

Redux is a predictable state container for JavaScript applications. Redux following the Unidirectional flow. Redux has a Single Store. 

Redux cannot have multiple stores.

The store is divided into various state objects. So all we need is to maintain the single store, or we can say the only source of truth.

Three Principles Of Redux

  • Single source of truth.
  • The state is read-only.
  • Changes are made with pure functions.

Actions

Actions are payloads of information that send data from your application to your store. Actions are the payload that contains needed information to alter your store. Action has two properties.

1) Type

2) Payload

We will take these properties as an argument of a reducer to change the current state.

Action Creators

Action creators are precisely the functions that create actions.

function addTodo(text) {
  return {
    type: ADD_TODO,
    payload: text 
  }
}

Reducers

Actions describe the fact that something happened but don’t specify how the application’s state changes in response. That is the job of reducers. 

Reducers are the pure functions that know what to do with a given action and the previous state of your application. The reducers will take the previous state from your store and apply a pure function to it and transform it into a new state. Pure Functions are base on Functional Programming.

Handling Actions

(previousState, action) => newState

Dispatcher

Dispatchers are an entry point for your application to dispatch your action. In Ngrx, there is a dispatch method directly on the store.

Store

A store is an object that brings them together. It is important to note that you will only have a single store in an NgRX application. If you want to split your data into a separate handling logic file then, you will have to use reducer composition instead of many stores.

Reactive Programming

Reactive programming is the way applications handle events and data flow in your angular applications. In reactive programming, you design your components and other pieces of your software to react to those changes.

The javascript library for reactive programming is RxJS. By providing observables and a lot of operators to transform incoming data, this library will help you handle events in your application. It is a component or service that reacts to data modifies.

Let us take an example to understand the Angular NgRx Store Example.

Step 1: Configure the Angular Project.

Install AngularCLI globally in our PC by typing the following command.

npm install -g @angular/cli

Now, fire the following command to create a project.

ng new ngrxstore

Okay, now create one component called blockchain by typing the following command.

ng g c blockchain

Now, we need to create one form in this component. In the src >>  index.html file, add the Bootstrap CSS file.

<link rel="stylesheet" href="assets/css/bootstrap.min.css">

Add the following HTML code into the blockchain.component.html file.

<div class="panel panel-primary">
    <div class="panel-body">
      <form>
        <div class="form-group">
          <label class="col-md-4">Coin Name</label>
          <input type="text" class="form-control" name="coin_name"/>
        </div>
        <div class="form-group">
          <label class="col-md-4">Coin Price</label>
          <input type="text" class="form-control" name="coin_price"/>
          </div>
          <div class="form-group">
            <button type="submit" class="btn btn-primary">Add</button>
          </div>
      </form>
    </div>
  </div>

Now, update the app.component.html file to show this form.

<h3 align="center">Angular ngrx/store Tutorial</h3>
<div class="container">
  <app-blockchain></app-blockchain>
</div>

Go to the CMD and hit the following command.

ng serve --open

It will host our Angular application at port no: 4200

ngrx store tutorial

Step 2: Create a model for our application.

We need to define our application’s schema. So create one file inside the blockchain folder called blockchain.model.ts file.

export interface Blockchain {
  name: string;
  price: number;
}

Here, I have defined the schema of our application.

Step 3: Install ngrx library.

In your package.json file, update the following packages.

"@ngrx/core": "^1.2.0",
"@ngrx/effects": "^4.1.1",
"@ngrx/store": "^4.1.1",

Now, go to the terminal and hit the following command.

npm install

Step 4: Create a reducer for our application.

Go to the app folder and create one folder called reducers. In that folder, make one file called blockchain.reducer.ts

// blockchain.reducer.ts

import { Blockchain } from './../blockchain/blockchain.model';
import { Action } from '@ngrx/store';

export const ADD_COIN = 'ADD_COIN';

export function addCoinReducer(state: Blockchain[] = [], action) {
  switch (action.type) {
    case ADD_COIN:
        return [...state, action.payload];
    default:
        return state;
    }
}

Here, I have defined the action type and reducer function. As we have previously discussed, Reducer is a pure function.

So the pure function always returns a new state. It does not modify the old state of the application.

Step 5: Configure the ngrx store in our application.

Go to the app.module.ts file and include the StoreModule in our application.

// app.module.ts

import { StoreModule } from '@ngrx/store';
import { addCoinReducer } from './reducers/blockchain.reducer';

 imports: [
    BrowserModule,
    StoreModule.forRoot({blockchain: addCoinReducer})
],

So, here, I have passed the reducer to the store. Now, if we need to change our application state the dispatch the actions and change the state and update the store.

Step 6: Add click event to the form.

Attach a button click event listener to the form. So our whole blockchainn.component.html looks like this.

<div class="panel panel-primary">
    <div class="panel-body">
      <form>
        <div class="form-group">
          <label class="col-md-4">Coin Name</label>
          <input type="text" class="form-control" #name/>
        </div>
        <div class="form-group">
          <label class="col-md-4">Coin Price</label>
          <input type="text" class="form-control" #price />
          </div>
          <div class="form-group">
            <button (click) = "addCoin(name.value, price.value)" class="btn btn-primary">Add</button>
          </div>
      </form>
    </div>
  </div>

Also, write the addCoin() function into the blockchain.component.ts file.

// blockchain.component.ts

import { Blockchain } from './blockchain.model';
import { AppState } from './../app.state';
import { Component, OnInit } from '@angular/core';
import { Store } from '@ngrx/store';

@Component({
  selector: 'app-blockchain',
  templateUrl: './blockchain.component.html',
  styleUrls: ['./blockchain.component.css']
})
export class BlockchainComponent implements OnInit {

  constructor(private store: Store<AppState>) { }

  addCoin(name, price) {
    this.store.dispatch({
      type: 'ADD_COIN',
      payload: <Blockchain> {
        name: name,
        price: price
      }
    });
  }

  ngOnInit() {
  }

}

Here, we need to implement the Global AppState in our application. So, the next step will be to implement it.

Step 7: Define the AppState.

In the app folder, create one file called app.state.ts.

// app.state.ts

import { Blockchain } from './blockchain/blockchain.model';

export interface AppState {
  readonly blockchain: Blockchain[];
}

Step 8: Add validation in the form.

Include the ReactiveFormsModule in the app.module.ts file.

// app.module.ts

import { ReactiveFormsModule } from '@angular/forms';

imports: [
    BrowserModule,
    StoreModule.forRoot({blockchain: addCoinReducer}),
    ReactiveFormsModule
  ],

Okay, now our blockchain.component.ts file looks like this.

// blockchain.component.ts

import { FormGroup,  FormBuilder,  Validators } from '@angular/forms';
import { Blockchain } from './blockchain.model';
import { AppState } from './../app.state';
import { Component, OnInit } from '@angular/core';
import { Store } from '@ngrx/store';

@Component({
  selector: 'app-blockchain',
  templateUrl: './blockchain.component.html',
  styleUrls: ['./blockchain.component.css']
})
export class BlockchainComponent implements OnInit {
  angForm: FormGroup;
  constructor(private store: Store<AppState>, private fb: FormBuilder) {
    this.createForm();
  }
  createForm() {
    this.angForm = this.fb.group({
      name: ['', Validators.required ],
      price: ['', Validators.required ]
   });
  }

  addCoin(name, price) {
    this.store.dispatch({
      type: 'ADD_COIN',
      payload: <Blockchain> {
        name: name,
        price: price
      }
    });
  }

  ngOnInit() {
  }

}

Here, I have written the validation logic for both of the input types.

Finally, our view blockchain.component.html file looks like this.

<div class="panel panel-primary">
  <div class="panel-heading">
    {{ title }}
  </div>
  <div class="panel-body">
    <form [formGroup]="angForm" novalidate>
      <div class="form-group">
        <label class="col-md-4">Coin Name</label>
        <input type="text" class="form-control" formControlName="name" #name />
      </div>
      <div *ngIf="angForm.controls['name'].invalid && (angForm.controls['name'].dirty || angForm.controls['name'].touched)" class="alert alert-danger">
        <div *ngIf="angForm.controls['name'].errors.required">
          Name is required.
        </div>
      </div>
      <div class="form-group">
        <label class="col-md-4">Coin Price</label>
        <input type="text" class="form-control" formControlName="price" #price/>
      </div>
      <div *ngIf="angForm.controls['price'].invalid && (angForm.controls['price'].dirty || angForm.controls['price'].touched)" class="alert alert-danger">
        <div *ngIf="angForm.controls['price'].errors.required">
          Price is required.
        </div>
      </div>
        <div class="form-group">
          <button (click)="addCoin(name.value, price.value)" [disabled]="angForm.pristine || angForm.invalid" class="btn btn-primary">Add</button>
        </div>
    </form>
  </div>
</div>

Now, if everything is fine, then you can add the data to the store.

Now, to verify it, we need to display that data on the front end. So make one view component to display the data.

Step 9: Create a view component to display data.

Go the terminal and hit the following command.

ng g c display

Subscribe to the store and fetch the data. So write the following code into the display.component.ts file.

// display.component.ts

import { Blockchain } from './../blockchain/blockchain.model';
import { Component, OnInit } from '@angular/core';
import { AppState } from './../app.state';
import { Store } from '@ngrx/store';
import { Observable } from 'rxjs/Observable';

@Component({
  selector: 'app-display',
  templateUrl: './display.component.html',
  styleUrls: ['./display.component.css']
})
export class DisplayComponent implements OnInit {

  coins: Observable<Blockchain[]>;
  constructor(private store: Store<AppState>) {
    this.coins = this.store.select(state => state.blockchain);
   }

  ngOnInit() {
  }

}

Now, write the HTML view for this component.

<table class="table table-hover" *ngIf="coins!= 0">
  <thead>
  <tr>
      <td>Coin Name</td>
      <td>Coin Price</td>
  </tr>
  </thead>
  <tbody>
      <tr *ngFor="let coin of coins | async">
          <td>{{ coin.name }}</td>
          <td>{{ coin.price }}</td>
      </tr>
  </tbody>
<table class="table table-hover" *ngIf="coins!= 0">
  <thead>
  <tr>
      <td>Coin Name</td>
      <td>Coin Price</td>
  </tr>
  </thead>
  <tbody>
      <tr *ngFor="let coin of coins | async">
          <td>{{ coin.name }}</td>
          <td>{{ coin.price }}</td>
      </tr>
  </tbody>

Add this view in the app.component.html file.

<h3 align="center">Angular ngrx/store Tutorial</h3>
<div class="container">
  <app-blockchain></app-blockchain>
  <br/>
  <app-display></app-display>
</div>

Now, add the Coin name and Coin price, you will see it will store in the ngrx/store and fetch that data from the store and display that information.

Angular 5 ngrx store tutorial with example from scratch

Finally, Our Angular 8 NgRx Store Tutorial Example From Scratch is over.

Github code is the older version but it will work with Angular 8 for sure.

I have put this code in the Github.

Fork Me On Github

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Observables in RxJS | Javascript Observables Example https://appdividend.com/2017/04/25/observables-in-rxjs/ https://appdividend.com/2017/04/25/observables-in-rxjs/#respond Tue, 25 Apr 2017 12:35:05 +0000 http://localhost/final/?p=425 Observables in RxJS

Observables are a pioneering concept in Reactive Programming. Observables are data source wrappers and then the observer executes some instructions when there is a new value or a change in data values. The Observable is connected to the observer who does the execution through subscription, with a subscribe method the observer connects to the observable to execute a code block. […]

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]]>
Observables in RxJS

Observables are a pioneering concept in Reactive Programming. Observables are data source wrappers and then the observer executes some instructions when there is a new value or a change in data values. The Observable is connected to the observer who does the execution through subscription, with a subscribe method the observer connects to the observable to execute a code block.

If you do not know what is Reactive Programming, then check out my article on this website  What is Reactive Programming in Javascript.

We will see following topics in this article.

  1. What is an observable?
  2. Difference between Observable and Promise
  3. Difference between Array and Observable
  4. Creating an observable
  5. Unsubscribe from an observable

What are Observables in Javascript

Observables are simply data streams or collections which arrive at a time. Observables are objects that can notify subscribers when the change is happening. We can wrap Observables as an object which contains the following things.

  1. Data Streams
  2. Some methods (next(), error(), complete())
Observables in RxJS
Observables in RxJS

Promises vs. Observables

If you do not know what promise is, check out my other article called Promises in ES6Promises are a way of saying that till now I have not any data while in a pending state, but in the future, It will surely either resolve or reject the data depending on the result. However, Promises are different from Observables. Let us take an example.

Example #1 (Promise)

See the following code.

//main.js

let prom = new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
   setTimeout(()=>{
      resolve('hello');
   },1000);
   console.log('Invoked Promise')
});

If you are running the above code in the browser, then you might face the following issue.

Possible Errors

  1. You can get any syntax errors.
  2. If you perform code directly in your browser, then chances are very high to fail the webpack compilation process.

Possible Solutions

  1.  Beginner’s Guide To Setup ES6 Development Environment  Follow this article strictly and put the above code in the main.js file.

Output

Invoked Promise

That means, till now in the above code, we have not invoked promise. Still, It will run and give us a logged statement. Now check the same for Observables.

Example #1

//main.js

import {Observable} from 'rxjs-es';
let obs = new Observable(observer => {
    setTimeout(() => {
        observer.next('hello')
    },2000)
    console.log('Invoked Observables');
})

If you are running the above code in the browser, then you might face the following issue.

Possible Errors

  1. You can get any syntax errors.
  2.  RxJS library not found in this code snippet.
  3. If you perform code directly in your browser, then chances are very high to fail the webpack compilation process.

Possible Solutions

  1. What is Reactive Programming in Javascript?  Follow this article strictly and put the above code in the main.js file.

Output

// nothing will show up here

That means, Observables are lazy, We want to subscribe to it to get the output from it, whereas Promises are not lazy.

//main.js

import {Observable} from 'rxjs-es';
let obs = new Observable(observer => {
    setTimeout(() => {
        observer.next('hello')
    },2000)
    console.log('Invoked Observables');
});
obs.subscribe();

Output

Invoked Observables

Arrays vs. Observables

Arrays vs.Observables
Arrays vs.Observables

Array elements do not relate to anytime. It just arrives, forms a Data Structure and we can apply some Higher Order Functions on it, and then we can get a new array.

Observables are entirely different from Arrays, as they arrive at various times, so all the elements behave like data streams. So we can sum it up as Observables are data streams that come at a time. It return an object on which we can call next(), error() and complete() method on it.

Creating an Observable

// main.js

import {Observable} from 'rxjs-es';
let obs = new Observable(observer => {
    setTimeout(() => {
        observer.next('hello')
    },2000);
});
obs.subscribe(data => console.log(data));

Output

hello

We have imported an observable library, and then we have created a new instance of an observable via invoking new keyword. We have passed the observer object to the constructor as a parameter. We have thrown a stream called ‘hello‘ via the next() method on the observable so that when we subscribe to the observable, we get the data.

// main.js

import {Observable} from 'rxjs-es';
let obs = new Observable(observer => {
    setTimeout(() => {
        observer.next('hello')
        observer.complete();
    },2000);
});
obs.subscribe(data => console.log(data),
            (error) => console.log(error),
            () => console.log('Done')
);

Output

hello
Done

If we call complete() method on an observable then, after all the collections have been done, it will fire done a callback, which accepts no argument but can assure that the stream of data is complete via subscribing to the observer. So basically, subscribe() method has three callbacks

  1. We get original data via subscribing to an observer.
  2. Error callback, if any error has been thrown from an observer.
  3. Complete callback invoked immediately if complete the data stream is completed.
//main.js

import {Observable} from 'rxjs-es';
let obs = new Observable(observer => {
    setTimeout(() => {
        throw 'an error';
    },2000);
});
obs.subscribe(data => console.log(data),
            (error) => console.log(error),
            () => console.log('Done')
);

Output

Uncaught an error

Unsubscribe from an observable

//main.js

import {Observable} from 'rxjs-es';
let obs = new Observable(observer => {
    setTimeout(() => {
        observer.next('hello');
    },2000);
    return () => {
        console.log('Disposal called');
    }
});
let object = obs.subscribe(data => console.log(data),
            (error) => console.log(error),
            () => console.log('Done')
);
object.unsubscribe();

Output

Disposal called

We have unsubscribed the subscriber, and we no longer get the data. Instead, we got the confirmation that we have unsubscribed the data.

Key points

  1. We want to make use of observables to handle, manage and compose asynchronous events.
  2. There are mainly three asynchronous events in a web browser 1) DOM Events 2) AJAX Requests 3) Animations. It can be used to model events, asynchronous requests, and animations.
  3. Observables represent push based async data source.
  4. It emits no data until the consumer wants it.
  5. It can also be transformed, combined, and consumed using the Array methods like map(), filter(), reduce() and other higher-order functions.
If you still have doubt in this Observables in RxJS then ask in the comment below, I am happy to help you out.

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What is Reactive Programming in Javascript Example https://appdividend.com/2017/04/13/what-is-reactive-programming-in-javascript/ https://appdividend.com/2017/04/13/what-is-reactive-programming-in-javascript/#comments Thu, 13 Apr 2017 20:54:36 +0000 http://localhost/final/?p=325 What is Reactive Programming in Javascript

Reactive Programming in Javascript is like a sequence of events that occur in time. It is an Asynchronous Programming concept around data streams. Reactive programming is a programming paradigm for writing code, mainly concerned with asynchronous data streams. It is a programming of event streams that happens in time. It’s time to rethink the basic Software Architecture because Conventional […]

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]]>
What is Reactive Programming in Javascript

Reactive Programming in Javascript is like a sequence of events that occur in time. It is an Asynchronous Programming concept around data streams. Reactive programming is a programming paradigm for writing code, mainly concerned with asynchronous data streams. It is a programming of event streams that happens in time.

It’s time to rethink the basic Software Architecture because Conventional Programming is not satisfied with today’s modern software application requirement.

Reactive Programming in Javascript

RxJS is a JavaScript library for transforming, composing and querying asynchronous streams of data. RxJS can be used both in the browser or on the server-side using Node.js.

 Just a different way of building software apps that will “react” to changes that happen instead of the typical way of writing software where we explicitly write code (aka “imperative” programming) to handle those changes.

Dynamic Data Streams (Event Emitters)

In general programming paradigm if z = x + y at the time of declaration then z will be the sum of x and y, but after that statement, if we change the value of x and y then z will be unchanged. So no effects after that sum statement.

Example # 1

//main.js

var x = 10;
var y = 20;
let z = x + y;
console.log(z);
x = 100;
y = 200;
console.log(z);

If you are directly running the above code in the browser, then you might face the following issue.

Possible Errors

  1. You can get any syntax errors.
  2. If you perform code directly in your browser, then chances are very high to fail the webpack compilation process.

Possible Solutions

  1.  Beginner’s Guide To Setup ES6 Development Environment  Follow this article strictly and put the above code in the main.js file

In both console report, we will get the same thing, and that is 30 and 30

The value of x and y does not affect variable z, so in Imperative Programming, The concept of Dynamic Change is missing.

Here in the example, we are using ES6 so, we need to download the ES6 version of RxJS.

npm install rxjs-es --save
import {Observable} from 'rxjs-es';
let streamA = Observable.of(3);
let streamB = streamA.map(a => 3 * a);
streamB.subscribe(b => console.log(b));

In the console, we can see the output of 9

Now we need to specify the Dynamic Behaviour of the Streams at the Declaration of the time and not after that otherwise It will not work. So dynamic code will look like this.

import {Observable} from 'rxjs-es';
let streamA = Observable.of(3, 4); // At the time of declaration, we need to assign the dynamic behaviour.
let streamB = streamA.map(a => 10 * a);
streamB.subscribe(b => console.log(b));

Now your new output will be 9 and 12

In Reactive Programming, everything is Streams that occur in time. A stream is a progression(sequence) of ongoing events specific to time.

Example # 2

//main.js

let a = [1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9];
console.log(a); // [1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9]

It logs the array of the values, and it does not relate to kind any of time interference.

//main.js

var a = [1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9];
var b = a.filter(x => x > 4)
        .reduce((x,y) => x + y);
console.log(b);

Run again, you will see in console 35.

Now the above example is simple, we have just taken an array and then filter with some condition and then reduce it to the previous and next value to get the final value of b.

This article uses the environment setup of  Beginner’s Guide To Setup ES6 Development Environment this article. So, still, do not know then please check out that article and you will up and running. Now we need to add RxJS into the step forward.

Step 1: Check your package.json file

{
  "name": "js6",
  "version": "1.0.0",
  "description": "",
  "main": "index.js",
  "scripts": {
    "start": "webpack-dev-server",
    "test": "echo \"Error: no test specified\" && exit 1"
  },
  "author": "KRUNAL LATHIYA",
  "license": "ISC",
  "devDependencies": {
    "babel-core": "^6.24.0",
    "babel-loader": "^6.4.1",
    "babel-preset-es2015": "^6.24.0",
    "webpack": "^2.3.2",
    "webpack-dev-server": "^2.4.2"
  },
  "dependencies": {
    "rxjs-es": "^5.0.0-beta.12"
  }
}

Now we have successfully installed the RxJS library so we can use it in this example.

Step 2: Replace the following code in main.js

//main.js

import {Observable} from 'rxjs-es';
let output = Observable.interval(500)
             .take(6)
             .map(i => [1,3,5,7,9,11][i]);
let result = output.map(x => x);
result.subscribe(x => console.log(x));

Now when you again start your server than in the console, you can see like this in every 500 milliseconds.

1
3
5
7
9
11

In above code, the values are logged at some time interval in our case 500 milliseconds, which is Asynchronous Paradigm.

When the interval event is fire, we got the logged values in our console, and It is awesome right!!

We got the event streams at a particular time, and we can also apply map, filter, reduce and other array functions to the events streams.

//main.js

import {Observable} from 'rxjs-es';

let output = Observable.interval(500)
             .take(6)
             .map(i => [1,3,5,7,9,11][i]);
let result = output.map(x => x)
    .filter(x => x > 5)
    .reduce((x, y) => x + y);
result.subscribe(x => console.log(x));

And we get 27 in the console.

Key Points

  1. Reactive Programming allows you to set Dynamic Behaviour only at Declaration Time.
  2. Reactive Programming is different from Imperative programming because as the name suggests it reacts when something in our application is occurring or done.
  3. It relies on Asynchronous Nature that happens in time.
  4. It stays responsive in the case of Failure and Success.
  5. In the Reactive world, we can not wait on something happen to the program, we need to continue the execution, and if something happens, we need to React to it. That is what the Async Pattern is.

Finally, Reactive Programming in Javascript tutorial example is over.

If you still have any doubt then ask in a comment below, I am happy to help you out.

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