To fix the ImportError: attempted relative import with no known parent package error, you can use the “absolute imports”, “refactor your code”, or “-m flag to run the script as a module”.
The ImportError: attempted relative import with no known parent package error occurs when you try to “use a relative import in a Python script executed as the main script” (i.e., not being imported as a module into another script).
Relative imports are used to import a module from the same package. They use the “dot (.) notation to specify the module’s location relative to the current script”. However, you cannot use relative imports in a top-level script being run directly.
Solution 1: Use the absolute imports
You can change the relative imports to absolute imports by specifying the complete module path, starting from the top-level package. This makes your imports independent of the script’s location within the package.
# Instead of using a relative import like this from .my_module import my_function # Use an absolute import from my_package.my_module import my_function
Solution 2: Refactor your code
Rearrange your code to ensure that relative imports are only used within a package, and create a separate top-level script that imports and runs the desired functionality from the package.
my_package/ __init__.py my_module.py another_module.py main_script.py
In this example, both my_module.py and another_module.py can use relative imports to access other modules within the my_package package.
The main_script.py should use absolute imports to access modules within my_package.
Solution 3: Use the -m flag to run the script as a module
To use relative imports in the main script, you can run the script as a module using the -m flag. However, this requires your script to be inside a package with an __init__.py file.
python -m my_package.my_script
This command runs the my_script.py file inside the my_package package as a module, allowing you to use relative imports within the script.
Choose the option that best fits your project structure and requirements to resolve the ImportError: attempted relative import with no known parent package error.