In accordance with NEP 32, the function numpy.fv() was removed from NumPy version 1.20. A replacement for this function is available in the **numpy_financial** library: https://pypi.org/project/numpy-financial

The **numpy.fv()** method is **“used to calculate the future value”**. Future cash flows are measured at the discount rate, and the higher the discount rate, the lower the potential cash flow’s present value.

**Syntax**

```
numpy.fv(rate, nper, pmt, fv, when='end')
```

**Parameters**

This function takes five arguments:

**rate**: This decimal value indicates the interest rate per period. This can be a scalar or an array.**nper**: This indicates a total compounding period. This can be a scalar or an array.**pmt**: This parameter indicates the fixed payment. This can be a scalar or an array.**fv**: This parameter indicates the future value. This can be a scalar or an array. The default value is 0.0**when**: At the beginning (*when*= {‘begin’, 1}) or the end (*when*= {‘end’, 0}) of each period.

**Return value**

The NumPy fv() function returns a float type value, which indicates the Present Value after the *nper* period.

**Example 1: How to Use np.fv() Method**

```
import numpy as np
rate = 0.10
nper = 10 * 12
pmt = -200
fv = 1100
print("Future Value after a period of ", nper, " is :")
print(np.fv(rate, nper, pmt, fv, when='end'))
```

**Output**

```
Future Value after a period of 120 is:
83436161.93604787
```

**Example 2: Calculating the future values**

```
import numpy as np
rate = np.array((.12, .30, .45))
nper = np.array((100, 120, 50))
pmt = (100, -300, -100)
fv = (-100, 50, 150)
print("Present Value after a period of ", nper, " is :")
print(np.fv(rate, nper, pmt, fv, when='end'))
```

**Output**

```
Present Value after a period of [100 120 50] is :
[-6.12488282e+07 4.47636903e+16 8.45416944e+09]
```

That’s it!

Ankit Lathiya is a Master of Computer Application by education and Android and Laravel Developer by profession and one of the authors of this blog. He is also expert in JavaScript and Python development.