The **numpy.fv()** function **“calculates the future value”**. Future cash flows are measured at the discount rate, and the higher the discount rate, the lower the potential cash flow’s present value.

**Syntax**

```
numpy.fv(rate, nper, pmt, fv, when='end')
```

This function takes five arguments:

This decimal value indicates the interest rate per period. This can be a scalar or an array.**rate**:This indicates a total compounding period. This can be a scalar or an array.**nper**:This parameter indicates the fixed payment. This can be a scalar or an array.**pmt**:This parameter indicates the future value. This can be a scalar or an array. The default value is 0.0**fv**:At the beginning (**when**:*when*= {‘begin’, 1}) or the end (*when*= {‘end’, 0}) of each period.

**Return value**

The NumPy fv() function returns a float type value, which indicates the Present Value after the *nper* period.

**Example 1**

```
import numpy as np
rate = 0.10
nper = 10 * 12
pmt = -200
fv = 1100
print("Future Value after a period of ", nper, " is :")
print(np.fv(rate, nper, pmt, fv, when='end'))
```

**Output**

```
Future Value after a period of 120 is:
83436161.93604787
```

In this example, we can see that we have initialized the values of rate, nper, pmt, and fv; we have called np.fv() to calculate the Present Value.

We can see that, as all our given values are scalar, we got a result in scalar and float data types.

**Example 2**

```
import numpy as np
rate = np.array((.12, .30, .45))
nper = np.array((100, 120, 50))
pmt = (100, -300, -100)
fv = (-100, 50, 150)
print("Present Value after a period of ", nper, " is :")
print(np.fv(rate, nper, pmt, fv, when='end'))
```

**Output**

```
Present Value after a period of [100 120 50] is :
[-6.12488282e+07 4.47636903e+16 8.45416944e+09]
```

In this example, we initialized the values of rate, nper, pmt, and fv as array values, and then we called the np.fv() function to calculate the present value.